While I agree with the authors that the apparent decision to not use the term Low Intensity Conflict for a number of miltary potentialities that do not include IW or GW, I think perhaps they also have missed the boat on what exactly IW is. Such a campaign and strategy should focus on the population, not the adversary, because it is the population that will ultimately decide which side prevails in the struggle for legitimcy, influence, and control. I agree that the definition of IW may not be the the be-all, end-all, but lets face fact. These Five Pillars were published in 2011.  Nowhere has this been better exemplified than in Afghanistan in 2001, where the mission combined the resources, human contacts, and authorities of the CIA with the capability, capacity, and expertise of the SF, to mount a very effective UW campaign. If you want to find and defeat the underground (if that is what you want to call it), then you have to control the populace to get the human intelligence necessary to purge the threat. Drive by COIN and targeting only overt guerrillas is clearly a recipe for failure. In Vietnam, securing and mobilizing the populace was critical (CIDG, Phoenix, etc. Also called IW. The time to debate COAs is over. As we know, the five pillars of irregular warfare are rooted within these seven core operations. All the options on the term and the definition were presented to the Senior Leadership and they decided. Airmen continue to plan and counter irregular and evolving threats as joint, multinational, and multi-agency campaigns, beginning with strategy development and concluding with the achievement of the desired end state. IRREGULAR WARFARE 1775–2007 Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop of the Partnership for Peace Consortium’s Military History Working Group THE U.S. ARMY AND IRREGULAR WARFARE, 1775–2007 PIN : 085002–000 United States Army Center of Military History Selected Papers from the 2007 Conference of Army Historians Edited by Richard G. Davis As presented, the definitions and concepts in the IW JOC have unnecessarily created confusion within the DoD by ignoring more than fifty years of experience and doctrine related to the challenges faced by the post-Cold War world and after the events of September 11, 2001. Just as combined arms are complementary at the tactical level, the IW JOC argues for complementary COIN, FID, CT, and UW activities woven into the tapestry of a holistic IW campaign designed to achieve the objectives of a global or theater IW strategy. a. Unconventional warfare is operations conducted by, with, or through irregular forces in support of a resistance movement, insurgency, or conventional military operations. Version 1.0 of the IW JOC proposes that IW is a protracted form of warfare, on a global or regional scale, that will require new capability development. I will bet the Korean co-author of this paper probably knew the US doctrine the best and was a great help in the historical perspective as our Korean SF brothers still use much of our old Special Forces doctrine. Let's all look to the future, think strategically about how to win wars against irregular challenges or by irregular methods, and propose refinements to the forward-looking concepts captured in the IW JOC.  SF is organized, trained, equipped, educated and optimized for a particular aspect of UW: to work “through and with an underground, auxiliary and guerrilla force in a denied area.”   Beyond that, the decision, the strategy, and the campaign plan to enable a resistance or guerrilla force to coerce, disrupt or overthrow a government or occupying power is made at the strategic level at what we once called the National Command Authority – this is outside the sole purview of SOF and SF. It is the case, for instance, of Mao’s guerrilla warfare during the Chinese revolutionary war, of the Italian Brigate Partigiane’s actions against German troops between 1943 and 1945, or that of some Confederate military units, such as that under William C. Quantrill’s command, during the Secession War in the USA. What does irregular warfare mean? (IW JOC 1.0) The pillars of the trinity provide a foundation to understand how hybrid warfare employs irregular, unconventional, and conventional military power to balance against the risk of war trending towards absolute violence and open conflict. As a result, we do not consider potential strategies to conduct “counter-unconventional warfare,” instead focusing solely on the means and methods of counterterrorism. Insurgency. Irregular warfare is the oldest form of warfare, and it is a phenomenon that goes by many names, including tribal warfare, primitive warfare, "little wars," and low-intensity conflict. The world has changed since 1951. Because the conduct of UW is linked with a little known and poorly understood force, policymakers, strategists, and planners dismiss UW as a less relevant threat to the US, and fail to see it as a practical and sometimes appropriate offensive option. The 5 Pillars of Irregular Warfare : COIN - Counter InsurgencyCT - Counter TerrorismFID- Foriegn Internal DefenseUW - Unconvential WarfareSO - Stability Ops . He is a retired US Army Special Forces Colonel with 30 years of service. Under CIA control, Army UW/GW would attrite enemy forces until conventional forces liberated occupied territory. Also, good historical doctrine analysis of Special Forces and Unconventional Warfare. The first iteration of an intellectual journey designed to help DOD think about the generational war being waged against state-like violent extremist organizations. For example, the term IW ia an anathema to the civil departments and agencies of the US Government, and to many of our allies and coalition partners. CT. The authors of the IW JOC freely admit that the components of IW are of ancient origin. While the construct of guerrilla, underground, and auxillary can be a useful model to visualize an insurgency's structure, it is not dogma, and not all insurgencies or resistence elements organize along these lines(odd that we still find it odd that other groups and countries do not feel obligated to follow our doctrine). A people's war or revolution against existing authority Nonetheless, the definition currently resides in Joint Publication 1-02 the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms and is now the foundation for US military unconventional warfare doctrine:  Unconventional warfare consists of “activities to enable a resistance or insurgency to coerce, disrupt or overthrow a government or occupying power through and with an underground, auxiliary, and guerrilla force in a denied area.”. The best example of this is in the area of Foreign Internal Defense (FID) and the rebirth of counterinsurgency in the US military after the challenges of Iraq.  Little attention was paid at this time to existing FID doctrine.  Like unconventional warfare, FID is one of the ten special operations activities specified in Section 167 of Title 10 of the US Code.  What that has meant to many outside of SOF is that FID and UW are SOF exclusive activities. The antipathy of the occupied population toward their occupiers was a given. It is folly to argue that the IW JOC is wrong because it does not comply with 1951 Army doctrine. Irregular War And Cyber Warfare; Irregular War And Cyber Warfare. I'm not at all sure General Giap would agree. Those kinds of folks are called Irregulars. The CIA would organize, train, equip the underground, so that piece of the puzzle was never written into unclassified Army doctrine and the strategic purpose of UW was downplayed because it was not within the purview of DOD. COIN. The Vietnamese didn't intend to defeat us by defeating our military, all their attacks were focused on our home population, which effectively led to political paralysis in the end. I propose that the time to debate the term and meaning of IW is long past. Will Commanders Trust Their New AI Weapons and Tools? by Lieutenant Colonel (P) William Stevenson, Major Marshall Ecklund, Major Hun Soo Kim and Major Robert Billings, Small Wars Journal, Irregular Warfare: Everything yet Nothing (Full PDF Article). Meaning of irregular warfare. The Enduring Pillars of Successful Counterinsurgency. The early Cold War Army doctrine envisioned the employment of UW/GW in Soviet-occupied territory in WWIII, supporting resistance movements not unlike those that resisted the Axis Power occupations of WWII. A frequent criticism of the United States military is it spends too little time contemplating the future of warfare, choosing instead to refight the last war. For example, Frank Hoffman has advanced the intriguing concept of hybrid warfare, first observed in the 2006 Lebanon War, in which adversaries blend conventional, irregular, disruptive, and catastrophic capabilities and apply them to achieve their strategic objectives. Examining each of these pillars of power will illustrate the advantage the United States has already demonstrated in Iraq and Afghanistan, and how these pillars will give us the strategic advantage in irregular warfare or “COIN,” going forward. Which tells us that cyber warfare is a relatively new. UW. States Air Force, Irregular Warfare, AFDD 2-3, Washington, D.C., August 1, 2007, p. 11. ), and it was effective where applied, unfortunately it was applied on too small of scale until later in the war. How is irregular war conducted? What we need are policy makers, strategists and planners who have a deep understanding of and an appreciation for unconventional warfare.  We need UW to be taught in professional military education institutions to non-SOF personnel.  We need to ensure that members of the interagency and the joint military have a thorough understanding of threats conducting UW and how to counter them.  We need academic institutions and think tanks to recognize, study, write about and advocate and education for UW.  Perhaps the historic Special Operations Research Office at American University, which was disbanded in the 1960s, should be re-established. In fact that statement was superceded when the term UW replaced the term GW as the umbrella term in the 1955 version of FM 31-21. Examples of those variables also exist. As it turns out, the pre-9/11 FID doctrine expressly stated that all services were to provide trained and ready forces to conduct FID in support of the GCCs.  Yet when the need arose the services chose to start from scratch due to a mistaken belief that FID was exclusively a SOF activity. "I'm curious as to their rationale to apparently discard totally items c. and d. above. It is clear that UW cannot “belong” solely to one military force, nor even to the military alone.  It is a strategic mission that is an offensive option for policymakers and strategists.  In the United States the UW mission is in fact an interagency one at the strategic level that can be shared between the Central Intelligence Agency and the military. Winning Damaged Hearts and Minds: An Irregular Warfare Concept David L. Grange, S. Swanson, and Patrick Christian 29 Chapter 6. September 11, 2001 the Global War on Terror began. By then Lawrence was gone, though not his influence, much to Orde Wingate’s consternation. Furthermore it is hard to kill the bad guys you can't see, and we can't win by only defeating the overt forces. An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through the use of … It includes, but is not limited to, guerrilla warfare, subversion, sabotage, intelligence activities, and unconventional assisted recovery. This paper seeks to better understand ethics in irregular war and cyber warfare. for joint forces, overflight rights, sanctuary, and external support for. Seems to me there is adequate historical example of both; Russian and US for just a couple and I'd further note that US Special forces were originally created specifically to assist in the conduct of guerrilla warfare as cited in items c. and d. Thus, I suggest their definition itself is 'lacking in academic rigor.' IW is difficult to define, explain, and employ. Subversion, sabotage, disruption, attacking civilians, influencing population, terrorism, organized crime, etc What are the 5 pillars of irregular warfare Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capacities, in order to erode an adversary’s power, influence, and will. 45. The history of IW needs closer examination to capture those lessons learned to advance the IW discussion beyond the IW JOC. I suggest that the IW currently being waged in Afghanistan is in fact at the operational level as it effectively occupies the whole of NATO and US effort there. How will DOD respond to, or present, such challenges in the future? As the IW JOC makes clear, IW is now used by DOD as an umbrella term for a set of activities that includes UW, with GW still being a subset of UW. The working group sought to develop a more universal definition, one that would describe the intent and methodology of an unconventional warfare (UW) strategy that would not be exclusive to the United States but rather, would also be able to describe UW from an enemy point of view (As I have argued recently, we should not be concerned with Al Qaeda and terrorism in the way that we have been since 9-11; instead we must focus on the unconventional warfare strategy that al-Qaeda is executing against the United States, the West and selected nations in the Middle East). IW JOC 1.0 is just that. Well worth the read. Notably the relationship between US and China. ""They cite FM 31-20 (1951) as one source and as it -- correctly in my view -- that:
"'guerilla [sic] warfare is used loosely to describe all kinds of irregular warfare. 1. The terrorists who conducted the Madrid bombings were not focused on Spain's economy or security forces, but rather influencing the voting population, which in this case effectively resulted in the anti-war candidate being elected and the withdrawal of their military from Iraq. The paper will also look at the doctrinal relationship between Low Intensity Conflict (LIC) and IW. Irregular warfare remains in the forefront of the Air Force’s warfighting focus. 78, by Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, by International Review of the Red Cross (IRRC) No. In fact, the Joint Staff rejected the study and the study has been widely repudiated by the DOD components. USSOCOM-The lesson identified seven core operations; counterinsurgency, stability, countering WMD, counterterrorism, support to major combat operations and campaigns, foreign internal defense and unconventional warfare. Small Wars Journal is published by Small Wars Foundation - a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation.  The take away is that the violence is ultimately directed at relevant population group, not defeating the opposing military directly, and that is the difference between IW and conventional war. DOD is now thinking about IW operationally and strategically, not merely as a tactical adjunct to CIA covert actions or conventional military operaions. The hostile states and state-like adversaries that challenge our nation seek to gain legitimacy and influence or control over relevant populations, and if we are to prevail we must prevent them from doing so and instead win the suppport of those populations for an alternative strategic narrative at least as compelling as our adversaries' narratives. David S. Maxwell is the Associate Director of the Center for Security Studies and the Security Studies Program in the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service of Georgetown University. 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